Category Archives: Wildlife Watch

Wildlife Watch by Marian Harman – March 2018

Blue Jay perching by Doug Pederson

Who’s top bird at your feeder? An interesting thing to observe while you are identifying birds is who is displacing whom at the bird feeder. This displacement behavior in birds is called a “dominance hierarchy”. For instance, we think of doves as peaceful and jays as aggressive. Cornell Lab of Ornithology set out to study displacement behavior at feeders, to see who comes out on top in bird interactions. Project Feeder Watch participants have been gathering the displacement data.

Eliot Miller at Cornell Lab correlated 7,685 observations sent in by Feeder Watchers. In general, he found what one would expect, bigger is better. Blue Jays displace mourning doves and downy woodpeckers displace tufted titmice. But there were also some surprises.

The Project Feeder Watch Blog of October 9, 2017 reports on Miller’s study of 136 species of birds observed interacting at Feeder Watch sites in North America. Miller ranked each species based on how often it displaced other species, and how often it got displaced. Then he arranged all those species in their order of dominance. The highest- ranking species, the toughest bird, was the Wild Turkey. At the bottom of the list was the Eurasian Tree Sparrow. Eurasian Tree Sparrows, an introduced species which lives in parts of the mid-west, is closely related to our much more aggressive House Sparrows.

Miller found that although in most cases bigger birds are more aggressive than smaller ones, “it turns out that doves, buntings and grosbeaks are less dominant than we would expect based on their body size, whereas crows, jays, woodpeckers and blackbirds are more dominant than we would expect based on their size….doves really are peaceful and jays really are feisty.” But these patterns can be complicated and circular. “Some species appear to co-exist in a rock-paper-scissors arrangement. European Starlings are dominant to Red-headed Woodpeckers, Red-headed Woodpeckers are dominant to Red-bellied Woodpeckers, and Red-bellied Woodpeckers are dominant to European Starlings….This rare non-linear hierarchy may help balance continental patterns of abundance. Each species competes with another for nest cavities, but no species is always the winner.”

This study is ongoing at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology and Project Feeder Watch is in need of more feeder watchers to join the effort to document displacement behavior. Go to to read the blog and Miller articles including his fascinating graphs of displacement, predation and mobbing behaviors. Join Project Feeder Watch in order to add your observations to this interesting citizen science effort.

Many thanks to all flora and fauna reporters for the month of March. Please send reports by April 26 for inclusion in next month’s article. You can call me at 692-3907, write me at 7A Old Colony Drive, or e-mail me at

Late February Reports:

Tom Ennis, Almeria Drive. February 25, first heard the woodcocks, “nearly to the day as last year, and slightly ahead of other years I have reported: 2015 no record, 2014, March 25, 2013, March 5, 2012, March 2.”

Marian/Bill Harman, 7A Old Colony Drive. February 28, two juncos, first chipmunk seen, red-tailed hawk soaring over the meadow.

Doug Pederson, at Beaver Brook Rd. February 27, saw several red-winged blackbirds yesterday at Forge Pond.

Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. February Report: tufted titmouse, chickadees, nuthatch, two pairs of cardinals, four blue jays, house finches, goldfinches, white-throated sparrow, chipping sparrow, juncos, heard a Carolina wren, heard an owl. February 20, immature male red-winged blackbird, more a few days later. Red-tailed hawk on Tadmuck Rd. Large hawk flew through the back yard. Heard a pack of coyotes late at night, several squirrels chasing each other. “One squirrel spotted with a big batch of leaves in its mouth. It proceeded to climb up a tree where it appeared to have a nest forming, and added these leaves. Chipmunks have come out. “Had a pair in the garage this morning, making a racket.”

Debbie Prato, Hayrick Lane. February 28, twenty turkeys and male house finch.

March Reports

Debbie Prato, Hayrick Lane March 2, Canada geese. March 3, had a hermit thrush the other day. “I was so happy”. March 9, robin, red-tailed hawk, lots of starlings. March 15, male and female bluebird eating suet today and a big, fat robin. “I gave him some raisins.” March 16, seven deer. March 23, skunk and raccoon. March 25, grackles, pair of house finches, cowbirds.

Doug Pederson, Woodland Drive. March 4, saw a goldfinch and house finch. March 19, Forge Pond, thirty hooded mergansers [Doug sent great photos-MH].  At Woodland Dr.,March 24, house finches and goldfinches at my feeder today. Also saw a flock of red-winged blackbirds.

Denali Delmar, Dunstable Rd. March 4, a pair of bluebirds at the suet–“How exciting!”

Marian/Bill Harman, 7A Old Colony Drive. March 7, snow on the ground, windy, 37 degrees. At feeder, downy woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, eight juncos, pair of cardinals. American crow on deck for stale chips–a first for us. Also, goldfinches, two titmice, a chickadee. March 8, 34 degrees, clear. Big snowstorm last night 8-10 inches, very heavy. Power is out and will be for several days they say. A new bird is at the suet, a male hairy woodpecker. Also, downy woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, three juncos, one chickadee, one titmouse, one white-breasted nuthatch, one blue jay, three goldfinches, one cardinal. March 9, 32 degrees, clear, no power. A lovely male cardinal in the pine tree, set against a snowy backdrop. March 10, clear, 35 degrees. Put out a new shelled sunflower feeder. Nine goldfinches flocked to it immediately, abandoning the thistle seed.  A new bird showed up on the deck, a song sparrow. Power came on late today–Yay. March 13, 30 degrees, snowing, windy another foot of snow–third nor’easter this month. Mourning dove, ten goldfinches, twenty juncos, two white-breasted nuthatches, two chickadees, two cardinals, crows heard, two titmice, one house finch. Power stayed on! March 18, new bird on the deck, an American tree sparrow-very cute. Also juncos, goldfinches, two chickadees. March 23, eleven juncos, three goldfinches, one white-breasted nuthatch, two chickadees, two red-bellied woodpeckers, a pair of downy woodpeckers, American tree sparrow, heard crow and red-winged blackbird. In the afternoon, took a walk on the trail to the swamp. Saw four ducks flying overhead, quacking, probably mallards, lots of red-winged blackbirds on territory, crows heard, what looked like a fresh hairy woodpecker hole in a living pine, lots of deer prints. March 24, a cooper’s hawk watching our feeders from a nearby pine. All feeder birds vanished, and he gave up. March 25, 34 degrees, snow showers. A pair of red-belled woodpeckers came into the suet, male cardinal, six juncos, one white-breasted nuthatch, five goldfinches, one titmouse, two doves (at last our lonely dove brought a friend).

Debbie Gustafson, Mark Vincent Drive. March 11, a very light bird, hanging around with the juncos. [Debbie sent a photo, which I sent on to Dave Larson of Mass Audubon. He identified the bird as a leucistic junco–pretty unusual-MH]

Flavio Fernandes, Vineyard Rd. March 15, saw some robins at Miller school today.

Molly Miller-White, Forge Village. March 16, about ten bluebirds seen

Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. March report, several doves, one partially white. Two pairs of blue jays, red-winged blackbirds male and female, tufted titmouse, nuthatches, chickadees, nuthatches, goldfinches (one bright yellow), red-bellied and downy woodpeckers, field sparrow, white-throated sparrow, chipping sparrow, juncos lots, grackles, crow, two great horned owls calling to each other late at night, two hawks, one watching bird feeder, two deer in backyard, one smaller than the other, squirrels chasing each other, chipmunks who like to hide in our garage.

Wildlife Watch by Marian Harman – February 2018

Snowy Owl at Salisbury Beach by George & MJ

Of all the winter birds, seeing a snowy owl is the most exciting to me. We don’t see them in Westford; the habitat just isn’t right for them here, they are tundra dwellers. But, I have been lucky enough to see them on Plum Island and at Salisbury Beach most winters. Some years are better for seeing snowy owls than others. This winter is shaping up to be good snowy owl viewing, and I encourage you to make the short trek to the coast to see them. Seven snowy owls have been reported at Plum Island this January and February.

Snowy owls are one of our largest owls and are fierce predators with large strong talons. They weigh about 3.5 pounds, and have a wingspan of 4.5-5.5 feet. As in most raptors, females are larger than males. They eat mostly rodents, but have been known to successfully take down prey as large as geese and great blue herons. Snowy owls are predominately white, but females and juveniles may have black streaking on body, belly, wings and head. Their eyes are golden. In their summer habitat on the artic tundra they hunt lemmings and other small rodents. Snowy owls are active during the day and thus are much easier for us to see than other owls which are nocturnal. Snowy owls are ground nesters. When juveniles reach their first winter, they tend to disburse and may fly far south to find suitable hunting grounds. They favor dunes and coastal areas that are much like their summer homes on the artic tundra. Snowy owls are nomadic. When birds migrate south in unpredictable numbers, this is known as an “irruption”. The winter of 2017-18 is said to be the largest irruption of snowy owls since 2013. It is not known exactly why the birds migrate south more in some years than in others. One theory is that they migrate south in search of food in years when the lemming population up north is low. Mass Audubon thinks that the migration may be caused by plentiful food at their nesting grounds in the summer, and a consequently larger than normal number of young being hatched. Some of these juveniles may then begin exploring new territory in the winter.

Since 1997, Norm Smith of Mass Audubon has been catching and relocating owls found to have taken up residence at Logan Airport. Owls at the airport can cause a hazard for the planes. Smith releases the captured owls at Plum Island, Duxbury and Salisbury Beach. He attaches tiny transmitters to the feathers of some of those he releases, and then he is able to track them for a few months. When the animal molts, the transmitter falls off. For instance, Owl # 134376 was tracked from March 9, 2014-April 11, 2015. In March the animal was released on the north shore of Massachusetts. In April it traveled to southern Canada. In April and May it moved far north and summered in the upper Hudson Bay area where it presumably nested. It returned south again in November and December to southern Canada. You can see these fascinating migration maps; just Google Mass Audubon Snowy Owl Project.

Many thanks to all flora and fauna reporters for the month of February. Please send reports by March 26 for inclusion in next month’s column. You can call me at 978-692-3907, write me at our new address 7A Old Colony Drive, Westford, or e-mail me at

Late January Reports:

Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. January 24, At least sixteen juncos in for seed early evening, three male and two female cardinals. January 26, beautiful male flicker on deck with doves and blue jays. Flicker came to the shelled sunflower feeder for some quick energy. January 29, seventeen doves, joined by seven blue jays. January 31, a dozen juncos with a pair of cardinals and a few blue jays on deck.

Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. January report: two pairs of blue jays, five cardinals, goldfinch, house finch, titmouse, chickadees, nuthatches, doves, lots of juncos, red-bellied woodpecker, white-throated sparrow, house sparrow, red-tailed hawk. Hearing coyotes again, sometimes one sometimes more, four gray squirrels, one lone chipmunk during warmer weather, deer racks in snow.

Debbie Prato, Hayrick Lane. January 29, flicker, cottontail rabbit.

Barbara Theriault, Tadmuck Lane. January 30, four adult and two young deer at edge of woods, cardinals, titmice, chickadees, juncos, woodpeckers at feeders.

February Reports:

Kate Hollister, Vine Brook Rd. February 2, we enjoy watching a red and grey squirrel chase one another away form the feeder. Not seeing many birds. We mostly see juncos and titmice at feeder, an occasional chickadee, house sparrow and hairy woodpecker.

Debbie Prato, Hayrick Lane. February 2, Canada geese, six mourning doves. February 4, six turkeys. February 7, first chipmunk. February 11, song sparrow. February 14, first red-winged blackbird. February 22, many robins, grackles and cowbirds. February 24, lots of cardinals and red-winged blackbirds, hawk with very dark head.

Phil Day, Graniteville Rd. February 10, heard a whole family of coyotes howling and yipping at about 10:30 at night.

Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. February 3, neighbor reported a blond colored squirrel. February 4, twenty-one juncos early morning. February 8, two crows perched in aspen trees. February 10, fourteen doves and at least ten blue jays. February 12, fourteen doves, a white-breasted nuthatch, two titmice on deck in the rain. Seventeen doves around. February 13 clear cold morning 5:45 a.m., a slender slice of moon over the back woods–beautiful. Later afternoon two white-breasted nuthatches scurrying around on deck with juncos. Three crows briefly perched in woods, always communicating with each other. February 16, twenty-two doves in aspen trees, waiting to drop down to eat. A colorful male house finch landed on deck. Lots of chatter from him lately. The goldfinches always have a lot to say. Two crows in aspens.         February 18, at least fifteen blue jays, and twenty doves. Beautiful red-tailed hawk cruised over the length of lawn. February 19, early afternoon one goldfinch on deck. February 20, snow melting on this lovely warm day. Chickadee calling “fee-bee” several times, two others in the distance doing the same. Three noisy titmice in small crabapple tree, they call “tee-you” over and over. Nuthatch joined the others. In the afternoon, doves, pair of cardinals and juncos scattered all around out back. February 21 bright male cardinal calling boldly from a perch in sumac by woods. Sitting outside I can hear what sounds like a flock of blackbirds, the true harbingers of spring….”We’re getting there!” February 22, early morning one red-winged blackbird on deck for seed, ten minutes later two grackles there. “When large blackbird flocks arrive and eat everything in sight including older seed that other birds have left uneaten, that is a good thing. Mostly, just knowing they are here can lift your spirits.”

Leslie Thomas, Old Colony Drive, February 9, coyotes howling near Chamberlain Rd.

Marian/Bill Harman, Old Colony Drive. February 26, barred owl heard, crows, titmice, chickadees, white-breasted nuthatches, cardinal pair, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker pair, at least six goldfinches, six juncos, flicker heard, crows heard, red-tailed hawk seen in meadow, two white-tailed deer bounding away, one red squirrel, two gray squirrels.


January 2018 Wildlife Watch by Marian Harman

White-throated Sparrow by Doug Pederson

On those frigid days of winter when the wind is high and the temperatures plunge below zero on some nights, I’m sure you feel as sorry for the birds as I do. How do they stay warm in winter? It seems something of a miracle when we see them at our feeders in the morning. The simple answer is that its not at all easy for them, and not every bird will survive sub-zero nighttime temperatures. But, birds do have a range of adaptations and strategies to help them.

Most important to warmth is feathers, which are specially adapted to trap warm air. On cold days, we see birds that look as fluffy and round as a little kid dressed up in a down jacket. When fluffed up, those feathers trap a lot of warm air between them. And by regularly preening and applying oil from the oil gland at the top of their tail, they can keep those feathers completely waterproof.

Another physiological adaptation is that birds can keep their core temperatures up by circulating warm blood around internal organs, while diverting it from less important peripheral areas. Legs have insulating scales covering them, and if the legs get too cold, birds can tuck one leg up at a time into their feathers and stand on only one leg. Waterfowl have a  special type of circulation in their legs in feet. Veins and arteries are located very close to each other in the leg, so warm blood heats up colder blood.

Many birds will shiver throughout a cold night. Physiologist David Swanson of the University of South Dakota points out that chickadees may be the toughest of winter survivors. They can’t put on too much weight because they need to be able to fly, but are experts in shivering. These involuntary contractions of opposing muscle groups are very efficient at generating heat. But shivering is costly in terms of calories, so birds need to have had a good feed just before going to sleep. Some birds can even lower their body temperatures significantly on cold nights to conserve calories. This is known as torpor. In extreme conditions chickadees, for example, whose normal body temperature is about 105 degrees, can lower their temperature in torpor by up to fifty degrees. Torpor is risky however, because if faced with a predator, a bird in torpor may have a very slow reaction time .

Other strategies to keep warm are behavioral. If they can find a patch of sun, cold birds will turn their back to the sun and raise their feathers so that the sun can heat the skin. At night, many birds huddle with others in shrubs, old nesting holes and nest boxes. Bluebirds, chickadees and others engage in this behavior. Alexander Skutch, in his book Birds Asleep, studied winter wrens’ huddling behavior on cold winter nights. Skutch counted nine wrens in an old thrush nest, ten in a coconut shell and forty-six huddling into a nesting box. One very cold morning, I flushed two mourning doves that were huddling under a drift of snow next to our house foundation.

What can we do to help? If you are reading this article, you are probably already doing the most important thing, feeding birds. In winter, it is important to provide high calorie and fat laden foods such as suet, black oil sunflower seed and nuts. A heated birdbath is very much appreciated too. Birds can eat snow for water, but the cold robs their bodies of heat and much needed calories. Remember to fill your feeders before you go to bed so that the birds will have food at first light after the long winter night. That can make all the difference in “your” birds’ survival. It will make for a lovely sight and the satisfying feeling when you are having your breakfast, that you have helped your birds survive the night.

Many thanks to all flora and fauna reporters for January. Please send your reports by February 26 to be included in next month’s column. You can call me at 692-3907, write to me at our new address, 7A Old Colony Dr., or e-mail me at

Late November and December Reports:

Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. November 26-30, three male cardinals, six blue jays, cooper’s hawk.  December 1, cooper’s hawk, sixteen doves, seven blue jays. Dec. 2, ten blue jays, twenty doves. December 4, four titmice and a few chickadees, gray squirrels. December 10, now 6-7″ of snow and ten juncos, Carolina wren, twenty-four doves. December 12, twelve turkeys, eleven blue jays, thirty-seven doves perched in aspen trees. December 13, hairy woodpecker, downy woodpecker. December 14, forty-nine doves in yard and aspens. December 15, twelve juncos, twenty house sparrows, thirteen blue jays, forty-seven doves. December 16, a flock of twelve cowbirds eating seed. Never seen them at this time of year. December 19, twenty-five doves, twelve blue jays, sixteen juncos, flock of turkeys. December 21, “Winter solstice ushering in our shortest day of the year….I’m already thinking about Spring!” December 22, a light coating of snow. Saw a cooper’s hawk land in aspen tree. Early evening, at least eighteen juncos and a pair of house sparrows under feeder, at least one tree sparrow with the juncos–first of the season. December 23, a flock of male and female cowbirds eating seed, joined by a few starlings. A number of doves and a few blue jays edged out the blackbirds. Three male cardinals arrived. December 24, cooper’s hawk returned. December 25, thirteen blue jays eating seed with twenty juncos on the ground. December 26, at least seventeen blue jays sitting in trees or on deck for seed–amazing. December 27, flock of turkeys near woods. December 28, three crows in trees, one starling visited suet, a male hairy woodpecker puffed up against the cold. December 29, hairy woodpecker returned for suet. One grackle here later. Three male cardinals joined by two females. Titmouse and white-breasted nuthatch arrived. December 31, eighteen to twenty blue jays on deck, eating sunflower seed–never saw so many. A beautiful full moon rising over back woods.

Kathy Cordeiro, Forrest Rd. Pert-looking red fox trotted through the woods behind the house–a first for us. In the past we have seen a bobcat as we were sitting on the deck having dinner.

January Reports:

Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. January 4, the hard cold continues. Outside my window the rhododendron leaves are pulled in tightly. Cooper’s hawk tried to catch a bird on the deck, but quickly gave up. January 5, storm left us so much snow… Just after sunrise, I watched a porcupine moving slowly and steadily through deep snow in the woods. January 6, sad looking tom turkey around a lot. January 10, little group of five turkey hens eating seed. January 11, lots of deer tracks and piles of droppings in the snow in the back yard. Nice to know they are stopping by. Some of the tracks are of a doe and smaller tracks of her fawn. January 15, immature red-tailed hawk perched in the aspen tree, warming up in the sunlight. Three deer headed into woods on Parkhurst. January 16, three titmice visiting. January 20, one male red-winged blackbird in a flock of cowbirds eating seed. January 21, six cardinals on deck–three male, three female. January 23, ice building up on everything.

Debbie Prato, Hayrick Lane. January 1, lots of Canada geese, downy woodpeckers, cardinals. January 5, red-bellied and hairy woodpeckers. January 13, pair of mallards at feeder. January 15, red-tailed hawk and sharp-shinned hawk. January 20, deer eating crabapples off tree. January 24, twenty-five blue jays in maple tree, fifteen juncos. Thirty to forty cowbirds, both male and female. Never have had cowbirds in the winter before.

Leslie Thomas, Old Colony Dr. January 6, a red-bellied woodpecker on my deck, right near the slider, pecking at spilled birdseed.

Gerry DiBello, Court Rd.  January 6, bluebirds showed up today looking very fluffed up and eating both the seeds off the ground and from the feeder. We have been putting sunflower seeds on the ground and making sure heated water is fresh every day.

Mike Killoran, Pine Hill Rd. January 9, flying squirrel at the feeder. “I have a microphone out near the feeder with a speaker in the house so we can hear the bird sounds. Tonight after dark I heard the familiar sound of the squirrel baffle clanging….I went downstairs and got a flashlight to point out the window. I could see the loose skin between front and back legs and an obvious change of color between top and bottom of the fur.”

Doug Pederson, Woodland Dr. January 14, one day that was warm this week, I went to the town beach and along the way in were more than fifty mallards all gathered together.

Marian and Bill Harman, Old Colony Dr. We put up a thistle seed feeder and the juncos like it–a surprise. Also have titmice, chickadees, white-breasted nuthatch, goldfinch, cardinals, red-bellied woodpecker, downy woodpecker, around six juncos. Hearing crows calling in the woods.

            Marian Harman is a member of the Westford Conservation Trust, a non-profit conservation organization whose purpose is the preservation of Westford’s open spaces and trails. The Trust welcomes new members and volunteers. Check out our website at, or visit us on Facebook.

December 2017 – Wildlife Watch by Marian Harman

Black capped Chickadee waits for seed – Doug Pederson

Happy New Year! At this time of year, I like to review all the flora and fauna reports for the past year. In 2017, we had 32 reporters, who sent in 1294 reports on flora and fauna they had seen. This is a smaller number of reporters than in the past few years, but these few stalwart reporters reported a very large number of species. Reporters reported from all over different parts of Westford.

Some notable reports were received in every month. In January, some cowbirds were reported to have been in residence all winter along Hildreth St. Bluebirds were visiting feeders all over town. In February, two pairs of hooded mergansers were reported on Forge Pond. A river otter was also seen fishing at the Forge Pond beach. The first woodcocks arrived early at Almeria Dr. on February 24. In March, peepers were heard on March 1. A river otter was seen on Vine Brook. On March 6, a great blue heron visited a yard on Howard Rd. On March 8, forty hooded mergansers and some ring-necked ducks were seen on Forge Pond. On March 13, hooded mergansers, blue winged-teal and wood ducks were seen on Flushing Pond. On March 14, a bear, out of hibernation, took down a bird feeder on Tadmuck Lane and on March 24, was seen at a feeder on Dana Drive. On March 21, turkey vultures soared over Monadnock Dr. On March 30, a pair of ravens flew over Chamberlain Rd.

In April there was a heavy snow on April 1. On April 7, a phoebe arrived at Monadnock Drive. On April 7, spring peepers were heard on Monadnock Dr. By April 10, ten great blue heron nests were occupied in the wetland off Rome Dr.  On April 11, chipping sparrows and a pine warbler arrived on Monadnock Dr. On April 11, wood frogs were heard on Main St. On April 14, painted turtles were sunning on Howard Rd. On April 20, an eastern towhee was heard on Monadnock Dr. On April 30, Baltimore orioles were seen on Hayrick Lane and on Chamberlain Rd. Also, a grey catbird first arrived at Chamberlain Rd.

On May 3, rose-breasted grosbeak, common yellowthroat, prairie warbler, towhee, and chestnut-sided warbler were all seen on Monadnock Dr. On May 2, a ruby-throated hummingbird was reported on Hayrick Lane. On May 2, a whippoorwill was heard on Chamberlain Rd. On May 6, a very unusual great egret was flying over Nashoba Pond. On May 13 at the Emmet land, ovenbirds, warbling vireos, and spotted sandpiper were heard. On May 14, white-crowned sparrow, indigo bunting, and blue-winged warbler were seen on Parkhurst Dr. On May 17, a great-crested flycatcher was first heard on Chamberlain Rd. On May 24, wood thrush and scarlet tanager were heard on Chamberlain Rd. On May 21, a bobcat was seen on Main St., and a gray fox was seen on Graniteville Rd. On May 23, a black bear was seen on Heywood Rd. on May 24, a redstart was seen on Sherwood Dr.

On June 1, black ducks were seen on Hayrick Rd. A red-eyed vireo was heard on Monadnock Dr. A great blue heron was catching chipmunks on Monadnock Dr. On June 4, a killdeer was nesting on Gould Rd. On June 7, a blue-headed vireo and a yellow warbler were heard on Chamberlain Rd. A Carolina wren pair was nesting inside a screened porch. On June 15, chimney swifts were seen to be nesting in the Roudenbush cupola. On June 20, kingbird and mockingbird were seen on Hayrick Lane. On June 26, ravens flew over Depot St.

On July 18, a gray fox was seen on Vine Brook Rd. Reports of bats have been almost non-existent this summer. One bat was seen flying over Monadnock Dr. on July 19. On July 19, a six-spotted tiger beetle was reported from Howard Rd. On July 22, two monarch butterflies were seen on Howard Rd., and a white admiral butterfly was seen on swamp milkweed.

On August, 6, ten cedar waxwings were seen at Lakeside Meadows. On August, 8, chimney swifts and an eastern wood peewee were seen on Monadnock Dr. On August 25, two blue-spotted salamanders were found on Providence Rd., under a potted plant. On August 29, a mute swan family of six was seen on Beaver Brook.

On September 1, six wood ducks were seen on Beaver Brook. On September 3, a black bear visited a feeder on Providence Rd. On September 5, a bear was seen walking along Groton Rd. On September 7, four young bobcats were playing in a Depot St. yard. On September 22, large- mouthed bass and pickerels were brought in from Stony Brook by fishermen. A cuckoo was heard on Graniteville Rd. On September 23, monarch butterflies were seen on Gray Fox Lane and at the Haystack land. On September 24, a northern leopard frog was seen on Hayrick Lane.

On October 8, a great-horned owl was heard on Providence Rd. On October 10, a black bear was at a feeder on Plain Rd. On October 15, a bear was at a feeder on Court Rd. On October 22, a bald eagle was being harassed by crows on Groton Rd.

November and the first part of December was unusually warm, with temperatures regularly in the 50’s and 60’s. As a result, birds seemed to be finding plenty of natural food, and didn’t visit feeders in big numbers. The December 9th snowfall brought many birds back to feeders.

Many thanks to all flora and fauna reporters for the month of December. Please send reports by January 26, for inclusion in next month’s column. You can call me at 692-3907, e-mail me at or write to me at our new address: 7A Old Colony Dr., Westford, MA


Late November Reports:

Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. November 2, hawk sitting on top of neighbor’s roof. Pair of blue jays, pair of cardinals come daily, purple finch and house finches, several goldfinches, white-throated sparrow. November 11, coyote in yard, howled for a bit., four gray squirrels. November 18, first junco sighted, the latest I have seen them arrive. A few chickadees, tufted titmouse, nuthatch, wren sitting on railing of deck. Downy, red-bellied woodpeckers, owl heard far away. December 26, Carolina wren in yard.

Ginger Dries, Sherwood Dr. November 5, Carolina wren. November 9, first junco. November 10, hawk sitting by feeders most of the day. Twenty-five to thirty robins on crabapple tree.  Over several days, they ate until crabapples all gone. Many jays, cardinals, titmice, chickadees, red-bellied, hairy and downy woodpeckers, mourning doves, sparrows.

Marian/Bill Harman, Chamberlain Rd. November 26, unusually warm weather– in the 60’s. Nine mourning doves, pair of downy woodpeckers, two blue jays, two chickadees, two titmice, one white-breasted nuthatch, one cardinal, one house finch, ten house sparrows.


December Reports:

Marcia Stokes at East Boston Camps. December 3 barred owls seen.

Leslie Thomas, Old Colony Dr. December 6, two big deer behind the garage in the woods. Later saw a third. December 15, four deer this morning.

Marian/Bill Harman, Chamberlain Rd. December 6, four large male turkeys crossing the street. December 10, ten mourning doves, pair of downy woodpeckers, three blue jays, two chickadees, one titmouse, two Carolina wrens, Two female and one male cardinal, eight juncos, fifteen house sparrows, pair of red-bellied woodpeckers, one gray squirrel.

Gerry DiBello, Court Rd. December 17, coyote seen about 8 a. between 4 and 6 Court Rd.

Margaret Wheeler, Depot St. December 16, two deer lying under some evergreens at the back of our yard. They stayed there for over an hour until six wild tom turkeys walked over from next door to check them out.

Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. December report: Three cardinals, one pair of blue jays goldfinches, purple and house finches, white-throated sparrows, eight juncos, tufted titmice, chickadees, nuthatches, several doves, crows heard. December 17, heard a pack of coyotes, saw gray squirrels. December 23, heard two owls chatting together at 2 a.m., one with a lower voice than the other. Hawk checked out our feeders and then left. Caught with outdoor camera, several deer at 4 am in back yard, saw deer prints after first snowfall.

Penny LaCroix at Forge Village dam. I counted 135 mallard ducks by the dam. Also saw ten swans and a blue heron on the pond.

Marian/Bill Harman, Old Colony Dr. December 24, just got some feeders up on the deck at our new condo. After a few days, they were brave enough to come. Today we were happy to host eleven juncos, two blue jays, 3 titmice, 3 chickadees, a goldfinch, four house finches, two downy woodpeckers, a mourning dove, a red-bellied woodpecker, and a grey squirrel.

Marilyn Day, Graniteville Rd. December 26, blue bird in yard sitting on our anemometer pole.

Marian Harman is a member of the Westford Conservation Trust, a non-profit conservation organization dedicated to the preservation of Westford’s trails and open spaces. The Trust welcomes new members and volunteers. Check out our website at and visit us on Facebook.




October 2017 – Wildlife Watch by Marian Harman

Carolina Wren by Doug Pederson

Can there be any doubt now that climate change is affecting the United States dramatically? Its effects are felt strongly in the number and intensity of hurricanes forming in the Atlantic and hitting Texas, Florida, the Caribbean, and Puerto Rico. The number and severity of these hurricanes come about as a result of the warming of sea temperatures. Climate change is also seen in shifts in species populations seen right here in Westford.

There have been shifts in several bird species that are probably due to climate change. In the past fifty years, several species of “southern” birds have come north into New England. Among these are the Northern Cardinal, the Tufted Titmouse, Northern Mockingbird, and most recently, the Carolina Wren and the Red-bellied Woodpecker. All of these species are still seen in the south, but they have expanded their ranges into New England. This is probably in response to our less severe average winter temperatures. Some birds, such as the American Robin and the Eastern Bluebird, which used to be migratory, are now year-round residents. These species are able to shift their diet from insects and worms in the summer to berries in the winter. These are all native species that are welcome here.

But some effects of climate change on species are not so welcome. Some plants have shifted their ranges, though plants are, of course, slower than animals in their responses to climate change. The Sugar Maple tree is the most obvious example of a shift in range. Sugar Maples thrive in cold climates. With our warming climate, they are greatly declining in southern and central New England. They are, in effect, “migrating” north, and it is predicted that in the not-too-distant future, Sugar Maples will no longer be found in the U.S., and the maple syrup industry will be confined to Canada. Many unwanted invasive plants have also expanded north into New England. Among these is Mile-a-minute plant, Kudzu (called “the plant that ate the south”). Westford has instituted a program to try to eliminate Mile-a-minute plant, which has just come into Westford in the past few years. These invasives grow very rapidly, and very quickly overwhelm all other plants in their vicinity. We cannot have a diversity of animals if we do not have a diversity of plants to feed them.

Other unwanted species which have invaded the northeast and Westford are insect pests. Very cold winters used to keep these species in check and prevent their march northward. But, with generally warmer winters, pests such as wooly hemlock adelgid and long-horned beetle, are starting to ravage our native trees.

What can we do about climate change? Any fix to our problems must be long-term. Primarily, we must reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Many in Westford are already switching to solar power, either through roof-top solar or through purchasing power through solar farms. Others are opting to buy 100% wind power through their power company. The non-profit Mass Energy offers its New England Greenstart program through National Grid. One can buy a mix of renewables or 100% wind power from Mass Energy. There is a small increased charge for this when you pay your National Grid bill. For us, the 100% wind option cost only $4.82 this past month. Because Mass Energy is a non-profit, these fees are tax-deductible. And, many in Westford are now driving hybrid or all-electric cars, which are much less expensive in gas costs, and reduce greenhouse emissions dramatically. In the long run, these actions will save our climate for our plants, animals and for us.

Many thanks to all flora and fauna contributors. Reports should be sent by October 26 for inclusion in next month’s column. You can write me at 10 Chamberlain Rd., call me at 692-3907, or e-mail me at

Late September Reports:

            Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. September 18, eight doves, several goldfinches and house finches a few chickadees in for supper. September 21, at Howard Rd. wetland, a few turtles sun bathing. Under Parkhurst power lines, catbird, towhees, and blue jays, one dove, lots of ragweed and pretty goldenrods, both of which will have seeds to offer birds later. Ground is covered with acorns, a great food source for wildlife. Bittersweet, bright red winterberries, glossy buckthorn, a few pokeweed berries missed by birds and red multi-flora rose hips around. Along the road, grape vines offering bunches of ripening fruit. Another season of plenty for the wild things. September 23, flock of three male and one female turkey in feeder area. September 24, beautiful red-tailed hawk landed in nearby quaking aspen. September 27, a few blue jays out front around feeder, showing how many different calls they can make. September 28, at Howard Rd. wetland, a few turtles. At Beaver Brook, one great blue heron standing in sparkling sunlit water beside the tall reeds, carefully using that long bill to groom himself. On the pond side of the road, a family of mallards swimming in a neat line.

    Doug Pederson, at Beaver Brook Rd. bridge, September 29, twelve geese, about twenty mallards, two red-tailed hawks, great blue heron.

            Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. September Report: pair of cardinals, one of them balding, goldfinch, house finch pair, pair of blue jays, downy pair, one pecking on our house, red-bellied woodpecker. Saw my last hummingbird mid-September. Tufted titmouse, chickadees, white-breasted nuthatch, red-tailed hawk eating his breakfast on top of our shed. Bear seen, September 3. It tried to take down feeder, no damage, and emptied one goldfinch feeder. Coyote in back yard howling at night. Gray squirrels chasing each other, chipmunks creating holes in lawn, bees on flowers. Honeysuckle climbing on trees and bushes, leaves turning color, poison ivy leaves turning color.

October Reports:

            Dot Mooney, Monadnock Dr. October 1, small cooper’s hawk cleared all the birds out near feeder. October 4, goldfinches enjoying coneflower seeds and chatting about it. I’ve added a second birdbath to front step and now I often see both being used. Sumac foliage continues to change into more beautiful shades, from green to bright red to maroon. Twelve doves under feeder. October 5, flock of house finches eating seed, males very colorful. Evening, fifteen doves near feeder. One stepped into a birdbath and stayed there stretching his wings and just enjoying his bath for several minutes. Huge full moon beginning to rise over back woods, bright and beautiful. October 17, perfect fall day. Blue jays, cardinals and a few house sparrows around. Three titmice on deck for a visit. October 18, one perky chickadee on deck, a few doves around. Some days there are very few visiting birds. They have so much to feast on now. They’ll be back when the weather turns cold and damp.  Are you glad to live in New England in October?

           Rosemarie Koester, Providence Rd. October 8, great horned owl heard, pair of blue jays, pair of cardinals, one juvenile cardinal, purple finches, chickadees, nuthatch, tufted titmouse, a few doves, a large group of noisy grackles, downy woodpeckers poking in trees and on the house again, a group of seven turkey roaming the neighborhood, chipmunks, three or four gray squirrels, bees gathering nectar.         

            Beth Bonner, Plain Rd. October 10, a bear took down our feeders.

            Gerry DiBello, Court Rd. October 15, our expensive bird feeder was gone. Later, we found it in the woods nearby. It had been on a rope, high up. The rope ran over a tree branch to a lower point that was reachable. Apparently the bear figured out how to release the rope!

            Mary Hosford, Groton Rd., October 22, heard a bunch of crows making a big fuss and then saw a bald eagle up in one of the pine trees picking at something it had captured. I got a good video of it flying away.